Athlete Section/Definitions



Macronutrient Metabolism: Energy is measured in calories and is essential for the body to grow, repair and develop new tissues, conduct nerve impulses and regulate life process


Glucose: a simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates


HbA1C: A hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test measures the amount of blood sugar (glucose) attached to hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the part of your red blood cells that carries oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body


Triglycerides: fats from the food we eat that are carried in the blood. Most of the fats we eat, including butter, margarines and oils, are in triglyceride form. Excess calories, alcohol or sugar in the body turn into triglycerides and are stored in fat cells throughout the body


 Free Fatty Acids: By-products of the metabolism of fat in adipose tissues


 Cholesterol: a compound of the sterol type found in most body tissues. Cholesterol and its derivatives are important constituents of cell membranes and precursors of other steroid compounds, but a high proportion in the blood of low-density lipoprotein is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease


 Lipids: any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. They include many natural oils, waxes, and steroids


 Total Protein: a biochemical test for measuring the total amount of protein in serum.



Albumin: a simple form of protein that is soluble in water and coagulable by heat, such as that found in egg white, milk, and (in particular) blood serum.


 Globulin: any of a group of simple proteins soluble in salt solutions and forming a large fraction of blood serum protein


 Blood Urea Nitrogen: a medical test that measures the amount of urea nitrogen found in blood. The liver produces urea in the urea cycle as a waste product of the digestion of protein


 Amino Acid: any of a large group of organic acids containing a carboxyl group, COOH, and an amino group, NH2


 Micronutrient Metabolism: Measure of energy-providing chemical substances consumed by organisms in large quantities. The three macronutrients in nutrition are carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins


 Vitamin D: a group of fat-soluble secosteriods responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects



 B Vitamins: a group of water-soluble vitamins that are found especially in yeast, seed germs, eggs, liver and flesh, and vegetables and that have varied metabolic functions and include coenzymes and growth factors


Vitamin E: Alpha-tocopherol, an antioxidant vitamin which binds oxygen free radicals that can cause tissue damage


 Magnesium: A mineral involved in many processes in the body including nerve signaling, the building of healthy bones, and normal muscle contraction. About 350 enzymes are known to depend on magnesium


 Iron: An essential mineral. Iron is necessary for the transport of oxygen (via hemoglobin in red blood cells) and for oxidation by cells (via cytochrome). Deficiency of iron is a common cause of anemia. 


 Zinc: A mineral that is essential to the body and is a constituent of many enzymes that permit chemical reactions to proceed at normal rates


Chromium:  works with insulin to help the body metabolize or process carbohydrates and sugars, helping to improve blood glucose (sugar) levels.




Endocrine Response:  Nonspecific activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) and sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) axes occurred following initial exposure to a noxious stimulus.


 Testosterone:  a steroid hormone that stimulates development of male secondary sexual characteristics, produced mainly in the testes, but also in the ovaries and adrenal cortex


 DHEA:  a hormone produced by your body's adrenal glands. These are glands just above your kidneys.


IGF-1:  an important growth hormone, mediating the protein anabolic and linear growth promoting effect of pituitary GH.


SHBG:  a glycoprotein, a carrier protein that binds to testosterone and estradiol. This blood test is used to evaluate overall hormone levels


 LH:  This hormone is known as a gonadotropin, and it affects the sex organs in both men and women. For women, it affects ovaries, and in men, it affects the testes. LH plays a role in puberty, menstruation, and fertility.


 Cortisol:  a steroid hormone, one of the glucocorticoids, made in the cortex of the adrenal glands and then released into the blood, which transports it all round the body.


Tryptophan:  an essential amino acid that serves several important purposes, like nitrogen balance in adults and growth in infants


Glutamine:  a hydrophilic amino acid that is a constituent of most proteins


 Glutamine-glutamate:  a sequence of events by which an adequate supply of the neurotransmitter glutamate is maintained in the central nervous system.


 CK:  This test measures the amount of an enzyme called creatine kinase (CK) in your blood, the muscle cells in your body need CK to function.


Myoglobin: a red protein containing heme that carries and stores oxygen in muscle cells. It is structurally similar to a subunit of hemoglobin


BUN:  a measure of the urea level in blood. Diseases that compromise the function of the kidney frequently lead to increased levels.




Body Mass:  a person's weight in kilograms (kg) divided by his or her height in meters squared


Plasma/serum Osmolality:  a measure of the different solutes in plasma. It is primarily determined by sodium and its corresponding anions (chloride and bicarbonate), glucose, and urea


Plasma Sodium: The sodium blood test measures the amount of sodium in the blood. Sodium can also be measured using a urine test.


AVP: a hormone secreted by the rear lobe of the pituitary gland, usually called vasopressin


Copeptin: a provasopressin-derived peptide, the precursor for arginine vasopressin (AVP), which is an antidiuretic hormone from the hypothalamus


Urine Specific Gravity: is a measure of the concentration of solutes in the urine. It measures the ratio of urine density compared with water density and provides information on the kidney's ability to concentrate urine




Serum Ferritin: a protein that stores iron, releasing it when your body needs it


TIBC: a blood test to see if you have too much or too little iron in your blood. Iron moves through the blood attached to a protein called transferrin


Total Iron Concentration: binding capacity value below 240 mcg/dL usually means that there's a high level of iron in your blood


Transferrin: a protein of the beta globulin group that binds and transports iron in blood serum


Transferrin Saturation: a medical laboratory value. It is the value of serum iron divided by the total iron-binding capacity.


Soluble Transferrin Receptor: for the evaluation of erythropoiesis and iron status


Hemoglobin: iron-containing protein in the blood of many animals—in the red blood cells (erythrocytes) of vertebrates—that transports oxygen to the tissues




NSE: Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is known to be a cell specific isoenzyme of the glycolytic enzyme enolase


S-100B: localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of a wide range of cells and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation.


Bone Mineral Density: a measure of bone density, reflecting the strength of bones as represented by calcium content. 


 CRP: one of the plasma proteins known as acute-phase proteins: proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (or decrease) by 25% or more during inflammatory disorders


 Cytokines: any of a number of substances, such as interferon, interleukin, and growth factors, that are secreted by certain cells of the immune system and have an effect on other cells.




CBC/Diff: this panel of tests looks for many illnesses in your blood. These include anemia, infections, and leukemia. It can help see how your overall health is.


MCP-1: one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and infiltration of monocytes/macrophages


slCAM-1: an early immunological marker of neonatal sepsis as compared to C-reactive protein (CRP), immature to total neutrophils ratio (IlT) and blood culture assays


sCDC40L: interaction is considered to contribute to the promotion of prothrombotic responses and production of angiogenesis-associated factor in addition to adaptive immune responses


IL-1B: known as leukocytic pyrogen, leukocytic endogenous mediator, mononuclear cell factor, lymphocyte activating factor and other names, is a cytokine protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1B gene


IL-6: acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine


IL-10: an anti-inflammatory cytokine


IL-8: a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells


IL-12p40: known as a component of the bioactive cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23


Acute Phase Reactants: a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute-phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute-phase proteins) in response to inflammation.




IgE: antibodies produced by the immune system. If you have an allergy, your immune system overreacts to an allergen by producing antibodies called Immunoglobulin E