B Vitamins: a group of water-soluble vitamins that are found especially in yeast, seed germs, eggs, liver and flesh, and vegetables and that have varied metabolic functions and include coenzymes and growth factors
Vitamin E: Alpha-tocopherol, an antioxidant vitamin which binds oxygen free radicals that can cause tissue damage
Magnesium: A mineral involved in many processes in the body including nerve signaling, the building of healthy bones, and normal muscle contraction. About 350 enzymes are known to depend on magnesium
Iron: An essential mineral. Iron is necessary for the transport of oxygen (via hemoglobin in red blood cells) and for oxidation by cells (via cytochrome). Deficiency of iron is a common cause of anemia.
Zinc: A mineral that is essential to the body and is a constituent of many enzymes that permit chemical reactions to proceed at normal rates
Chromium: works with insulin to help the body metabolize or process carbohydrates and sugars, helping to improve blood glucose (sugar) levels.
MUSCLE STATUS PANEL
Endocrine Response: Nonspecific activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) and sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) axes occurred following initial exposure to a noxious stimulus.
Testosterone: a steroid hormone that stimulates development of male secondary sexual characteristics, produced mainly in the testes, but also in the ovaries and adrenal cortex
IGF-1: an important growth hormone, mediating the protein anabolic and linear growth promoting effect of pituitary GH.
SHBG: a glycoprotein, a carrier protein that binds to testosterone and estradiol. This blood test is used to evaluate overall hormone levels
LH: This hormone is known as a gonadotropin, and it affects the sex organs in both men and women. For women, it affects ovaries, and in men, it affects the testes. LH plays a role in puberty, menstruation, and fertility.
Cortisol: a steroid hormone, one of the glucocorticoids, made in the cortex of the adrenal glands and then released into the blood, which transports it all round the body.
Tryptophan: an essential amino acid that serves several important purposes, like nitrogen balance in adults and growth in infants
Glutamine: a hydrophilic amino acid that is a constituent of most proteins
Glutamine-glutamate: a sequence of events by which an adequate supply of the neurotransmitter glutamate is maintained in the central nervous system.
CK: This test measures the amount of an enzyme called creatine kinase (CK) in your blood, the muscle cells in your body need CK to function.
Myoglobin: a red protein containing heme that carries and stores oxygen in muscle cells. It is structurally similar to a subunit of hemoglobin
BUN: a measure of the urea level in blood. Diseases that compromise the function of the kidney frequently lead to increased levels.
HYDRATION STATUS PANEL
Body Mass: a person's weight in kilograms (kg) divided by his or her height in meters squared
Plasma/serum Osmolality: a measure of the different solutes in plasma. It is primarily determined by sodium and its corresponding anions (chloride and bicarbonate), glucose, and urea
Plasma Sodium: The sodium blood test measures the amount of sodium in the blood. Sodium can also be measured using a urine test.
AVP: a hormone secreted by the rear lobe of the pituitary gland, usually called vasopressin
Copeptin: a provasopressin-derived peptide, the precursor for arginine vasopressin (AVP), which is an antidiuretic hormone from the hypothalamus
Urine Specific Gravity: is a measure of the concentration of solutes in the urine. It measures the ratio of urine density compared with water density and provides information on the kidney's ability to concentrate urine
CARDIOVASCULAR ENDURANCE PANEL
Serum Ferritin: a protein that stores iron, releasing it when your body needs it
TIBC: a blood test to see if you have too much or too little iron in your blood. Iron moves through the blood attached to a protein called transferrin
Total Iron Concentration: binding capacity value below 240 mcg/dL usually means that there's a high level of iron in your blood
Transferrin: a protein of the beta globulin group that binds and transports iron in blood serum
Transferrin Saturation: a medical laboratory value. It is the value of serum iron divided by the total iron-binding capacity.
Soluble Transferrin Receptor: for the evaluation of erythropoiesis and iron status
Hemoglobin: iron-containing protein in the blood of many animals—in the red blood cells (erythrocytes) of vertebrates—that transports oxygen to the tissues
INJURY RISK PANEL
NSE: Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is known to be a cell specific isoenzyme of the glycolytic enzyme enolase
S-100B: localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of a wide range of cells and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation.
Bone Mineral Density: a measure of bone density, reflecting the strength of bones as represented by calcium content.
CRP: one of the plasma proteins known as acute-phase proteins: proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (or decrease) by 25% or more during inflammatory disorders
Cytokines: any of a number of substances, such as interferon, interleukin, and growth factors, that are secreted by certain cells of the immune system and have an effect on other cells.
CBC/Diff: this panel of tests looks for many illnesses in your blood. These include anemia, infections, and leukemia. It can help see how your overall health is.
MCP-1: one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and infiltration of monocytes/macrophages
slCAM-1: an early immunological marker of neonatal sepsis as compared to C-reactive protein (CRP), immature to total neutrophils ratio (IlT) and blood culture assays
sCDC40L: interaction is considered to contribute to the promotion of prothrombotic responses and production of angiogenesis-associated factor in addition to adaptive immune responses
IL-1B: known as leukocytic pyrogen, leukocytic endogenous mediator, mononuclear cell factor, lymphocyte activating factor and other names, is a cytokine protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1B gene
IL-6: acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine
IL-10: an anti-inflammatory cytokine
IL-8: a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells
IL-12p40: known as a component of the bioactive cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23
Acute Phase Reactants: a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute-phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute-phase proteins) in response to inflammation.
FOOD ALLERGIES PANEL
IgE: antibodies produced by the immune system. If you have an allergy, your immune system overreacts to an allergen by producing antibodies called Immunoglobulin E