Athlete Section/Informations and Definitions


NUTRITIONAL AND METABOLIC HEALTH PANEL

Macronutrient Metabolism: Energy is measured in calories and is essential for the body to grow, repair and develop new tissues, conduct nerve impulses and regulate life process

 

Glucose: a simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates

 

HbA1C: A hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test measures the amount of blood sugar (glucose) attached to hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the part of your red blood cells that carries oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body

 

Triglycerides: fats from the food we eat that are carried in the blood. Most of the fats we eat, including butter, margarines and oils, are in triglyceride form. Excess calories, alcohol or sugar in the body turn into triglycerides and are stored in fat cells throughout the body

Free Fatty Acids: By-products of the metabolism of fat in adipose tissues

 

 

Cholesterol: a compound of the sterol type found in most body tissues. Cholesterol and its derivatives are important constituents of cell membranes and precursors of other steroid compounds, but a high proportion in the blood of low-density lipoprotein is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease

 

 

Lipids: any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. They include many natural oils, waxes, and steroids

 

 

 

Total Protein: a biochemical test for measuring the total amount of protein in serum.

 

 

Albumin: a simple form of protein that is soluble in water and coagulable by heat, such as that found in egg white, milk, and (in particular) blood serum.

 

 

Globulin: any of a group of simple proteins soluble in salt solutions and forming a large fraction of blood serum protein

 

 

Blood Urea Nitrogen: a medical test that measures the amount of urea nitrogen found in blood. The liver produces urea in the urea cycle as a waste product of the digestion of protein

 

 

Amino Acid: any of a large group of organic acids containing a carboxyl group, COOH, and an amino group, NH2

 

 

Micronutrient Metabolism: Measure of energy-providing chemical substances consumed by organisms in large quantities. The three macronutrients in nutrition are carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins

 

 

Vitamin D: a group of fat-soluble secosteriods responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects

 

 

 

 

B Vitamins: a group of water-soluble vitamins that are found especially in yeast, seed germs, eggs, liver and flesh, and vegetables and that have varied metabolic functions and include coenzymes and growth factors

 

Vitamin E: Alpha-tocopherol, an antioxidant vitamin which binds oxygen free radicals that can cause tissue damage

 

 

Magnesium: A mineral involved in many processes in the body including nerve signaling, the building of healthy bones, and normal muscle contraction. About 350 enzymes are known to depend on magnesium

 

 

Iron: An essential mineral. Iron is necessary for the transport of oxygen (via hemoglobin in red blood cells) and for oxidation by cells (via cytochrome). Deficiency of iron is a common cause of anemia. 

 

 

Zinc: A mineral that is essential to the body and is a constituent of many enzymes that permit chemical reactions to proceed at normal rates

 

Chromium:  works with insulin to help the body metabolize or process carbohydrates and sugars, helping to improve blood glucose (sugar) levels.

 

MUSCLE STATUS PANEL

 

Endocrine Response:  Nonspecific activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) and sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) axes occurred following initial exposure to a noxious stimulus.

 

 

Testosterone:  a steroid hormone that stimulates development of male secondary sexual characteristics, produced mainly in the testes, but also in the ovaries and adrenal cortex

  

IGF-1:  an important growth hormone, mediating the protein anabolic and linear growth promoting effect of pituitary GH.

 

SHBG:  a glycoprotein, a carrier protein that binds to testosterone and estradiol. This blood test is used to evaluate overall hormone levels

 

 

LH:  This hormone is known as a gonadotropin, and it affects the sex organs in both men and women. For women, it affects ovaries, and in men, it affects the testes. LH plays a role in puberty, menstruation, and fertility.

 

 

Cortisol:  a steroid hormone, one of the glucocorticoids, made in the cortex of the adrenal glands and then released into the blood, which transports it all round the body.

 

Tryptophan:  an essential amino acid that serves several important purposes, like nitrogen balance in adults and growth in infants

 

Glutamine:  a hydrophilic amino acid that is a constituent of most proteins

 

 

Glutamine-glutamate:  a sequence of events by which an adequate supply of the neurotransmitter glutamate is maintained in the central nervous system.

 

 

CK:  This test measures the amount of an enzyme called creatine kinase (CK) in your blood, the muscle cells in your body need CK to function.

 

Myoglobin: a red protein containing heme that carries and stores oxygen in muscle cells. It is structurally similar to a subunit of hemoglobin

 

BUN:  a measure of the urea level in blood. Diseases that compromise the function of the kidney frequently lead to increased levels.

 

HYDRATION STATUS PANEL

 

Body Mass:  a person's weight in kilograms (kg) divided by his or her height in meters squared

 

Plasma/serum Osmolality:  a measure of the different solutes in plasma. It is primarily determined by sodium and its corresponding anions (chloride and bicarbonate), glucose, and urea

 

Plasma Sodium: The sodium blood test measures the amount of sodium in the blood. Sodium can also be measured using a urine test.

 

AVP: a hormone secreted by the rear lobe of the pituitary gland, usually called vasopressin

 

Copeptin: a provasopressin-derived peptide, the precursor for arginine vasopressin (AVP), which is an antidiuretic hormone from the hypothalamus

 

Urine Specific Gravity: is a measure of the concentration of solutes in the urine. It measures the ratio of urine density compared with water density and provides information on the kidney's ability to concentrate urine

 

CARDIOVASCULAR ENDURANCE PANEL

 

Serum Ferritin: a protein that stores iron, releasing it when your body needs it

 

TIBC: a blood test to see if you have too much or too little iron in your blood. Iron moves through the blood attached to a protein called transferrin

 

Total Iron Concentration: binding capacity value below 240 mcg/dL usually means that there's a high level of iron in your blood

 

Transferrin: a protein of the beta globulin group that binds and transports iron in blood serum

 

Transferrin Saturation: a medical laboratory value. It is the value of serum iron divided by the total iron-binding capacity.

 

Soluble Transferrin Receptor: for the evaluation of erythropoiesis and iron status

 

Hemoglobin: iron-containing protein in the blood of many animals—in the red blood cells (erythrocytes) of vertebrates—that transports oxygen to the tissues

 

INJURY RISK PANEL

 

NSE: Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is known to be a cell specific isoenzyme of the glycolytic enzyme enolase

 

S-100B: localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of a wide range of cells and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation.

 

Bone Mineral Density: a measure of bone density, reflecting the strength of bones as represented by calcium content. 

 

 

CRP: one of the plasma proteins known as acute-phase proteins: proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (or decrease) by 25% or more during inflammatory disorders

 

 

Cytokines: any of a number of substances, such as interferon, interleukin, and growth factors, that are secreted by certain cells of the immune system and have an effect on other cells.

 

INFLAMMATION PANEL

 

CBC/Diff: this panel of tests looks for many illnesses in your blood. These include anemia, infections, and leukemia. It can help see how your overall health is.

 

MCP-1: one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and infiltration of monocytes/macrophages

 

slCAM-1: an early immunological marker of neonatal sepsis as compared to C-reactive protein (CRP), immature to total neutrophils ratio (IlT) and blood culture assays

 

sCDC40L: interaction is considered to contribute to the promotion of prothrombotic responses and production of angiogenesis-associated factor in addition to adaptive immune responses

 

IL-1B: known as leukocytic pyrogen, leukocytic endogenous mediator, mononuclear cell factor, lymphocyte activating factor and other names, is a cytokine protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1B gene

 

IL-6: acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine

 

IL-10: an anti-inflammatory cytokine

 

IL-8: a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells

 

IL-12p40: known as a component of the bioactive cytokines interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23

 

Acute Phase Reactants: a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute-phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute-phase proteins) in response to inflammation.

 

FOOD ALLERGIES PANEL

 

IgE: antibodies produced by the immune system. If you have an allergy, your immune system overreacts to an allergen by producing antibodies called Immunoglobulin E

 

 

 

 

 

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ALT:  An ALT test measures the amount of ALT in the blood. High levels of ALT in the blood can indicate a liver problem, even before you have signs of liver disease, such as jaundice, a condition that causes your skin and eyes to turn yellow. An ALT blood test may be helpful in early detection of liver disease.

 

Apolipoprotein A1:  Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) is a protein that has specific roles in the transportation and metabolism of lipids and is the main protein component in high-density lipoprotein (HDL, the "good cholesterol"). This test measures the amount of apo A-I in the blood.

 

Apolipoprotein B:   a protein that is involved in the metabolism of lipids and is the main protein constituent of lipoproteins such as very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, the "bad cholesterol"). This test measures the amount of apo B in the blood.

 

AST:  an enzyme that is found mostly in the liver, but also in muscles. When your liver is damaged, it releases AST into your bloodstream. An AST blood test measures the amount of AST in your blood. The test can help your health care provider diagnose liver damage or disease.

 

Bicarbonate (U):  an electrolyte, a negatively charged ion that is used by the body to help maintain the body's acid-base (pH) balance. It also works with the other electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and chloride) to maintain electrical neutrality at the cellular level. This test measures the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood, which occurs mostly in the form of bicarbonate (HCO3-).

 

Bilirubin, Fractionated:  Measurement of the levels of bilirubin is used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver, hemolytic, hematologic, and metabolic disorders, including hepatitis and gall bladder obstructive disease.

 

Calcium:  Serum calcium is involved in the regulation of neuromuscular and enzyme activity, bone metabolism and blood coagulation. Calcium blood levels are controlled by a complex interaction of parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, calcitonin and adrenal cortical steroids. Calcium measurements are useful in the diagnosis of parathyroid disease, some bone disorders and chronic renal disease. A low level of calcium may result in tetany.

 

CBC:  A complete blood count is used as a screening test for various disease states to include: anemia, leukemia and inflammatory processes.

 

Electrolyte Panel:  t measures the levels of electrolytesClick here to see more information. and carbon dioxide in your blood.

 

Ferritin Panel:  Useful in the diagnosis of hypochromic, microcytic anemias. Decreased in iron deficiency anemia and increased in iron overload.

 

Homocysteine, Cardiovascular:  An elevated concentration of homocysteine is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. When used in conjunction with methylmalonic acid (MMA), these tests are useful to diagnose and monitor vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and folic acid deficiency and are often useful in evaluating macrocytosis (an elevated MCV, an erythrocytic index).

 

Iron and Total Iron Binding Capacity: This Test Guide is designed to assist with test selection and interpretation of common chemistry analytes. The Guide lists the analytes and the conditions with which they are primarily associated as well as interpretive information for abnormal test results. The tables are provided for informational purposes only and are not intended as medical advice. A physician's test selection and interpretation, diagnosis, and patient management decisions should be based on his/her education, clinical expertise, and assessment of the patient.

 

Lipid Panel:  Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) testing is an important part of a CHD prevention strategy. It is used to assess the risk of CHD and also to monitor patients who have an increased risk of CHD due to prior CHD, other atherosclerotic disease(s), diabetes mellitus, or other risk factors. The risk of CHD can be reduced through lifestyle changes and medical therapy.1-3 Alternative pharmacotherapy may be recommended if statins are not tolerated or insufficiently lower LDL-C.1-3

 

Total Protein:  The CSF normally contains less than 1% of the amount of protein present in plasma. Clinical disorders associated with increased CSF protein include traumatic spinal tap, increased blood-CSF permeability due to meningitis or hemorrhage, endocrine/metabolic disorders, drug toxicity, and CSF circulation disorders. Clinical disorders associated with decreased CSF total protein include CSF leakage from dural tear, increased intracranial pressure, removal of CSF, hyperthyroidism and leukemia.

 

T-4 (Thyroxine):  A thyroxine test helps diagnose disorders of the thyroid. The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located near the throat. Your thyroid makes hormones that regulate the way your body uses energy.

  

Glucose: a simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates

 

HbA1C: A hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test measures the amount of blood sugar (glucose) attached to hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the part of your red blood cells that carries oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body

 

TSH:  test that measures this hormone. The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located near your throat. Your thyroid makes hormones that regulate the way your body uses energy. It also plays an important role in regulating your weight, body temperature, muscle strength, and even your mood. TSH is made in a gland in the brain called the pituitary. When thyroid levels in your body are low, the pituitary gland makes more TSH. When thyroid levels are high, the pituitary gland makes less TSH. TSH levels that are too high or too low can indicate your thyroid isn't working correctly.

 

TSH With Reflex to FT4:  For differential diagnosis of primary, secondary, and tertiary hypothyroidism. Also useful in screening for hyperthyroidism. This assay allows adjustment of exogenous thyroxine dosage in hypothyroid patients and in patients on suppressive thyroxine therapy for thyroid neoplasia.

 

Urea Nitrogen (BUN):  Urea is the principle waste product of protein catabolism. BUN is most commonly measured in the diagnosis and treatment of certain renal and metabolic diseases.

 

Vitamin B12:  B12 is decreased in pernicious anemia, total or partial gastrectomy, malabsorption and certain congenital and biochemical disorders.

 

Total Cortisol:  used to help diagnose disorders of the adrenal gland. These include Cushing's syndrome, a condition that causes your body to make too much cortisol, and Addison disease, a condition in which your body doesn't make enough cortisol.  

 

 

Serum Glucose:  A blood sugar test measures the amount of a sugar called glucose in a sample of your blood. Glucose is a major source of energy for most cells of the body, including brain cells. Glucose is a building block for carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. Carbohydrates are quickly turned into glucose in your body. This can raise your blood glucose level. Hormones made in the body help control blood glucose level.

 

HDL Cholesterol: HDL cholesterol is inversely related to the risk for cardiovascular disease. It increases following regular exercise, moderate alcohol consumption and with oral estrogen therapy. Decreased levels are associated with obesity, stress, cigarette smoking and diabetes mellitus.

 

Triglycerides: fats from the food we eat that are carried in the blood. Most of the fats we eat, including butter, margarines and oils, are in triglyceride form. Excess calories, alcohol or sugar in the body turn into triglycerides and are stored in fat cells throughout the body

 

VLDL:  Triglycerides and VLDL-Calculation

 

T3, Free:  This test is used to diagnose hyperthyroidism and to clarify thyroid status in the presence of a possible protein binding abnormality.

 

Progesterone:  The presence of progesterone receptors in tumor tissue cells is used to select drug therapy, especially in women with breast carcinoma.

 

Testosterone, Free and Total ( LC/MS/MS ):  Helpful in assessing testicular function in male and managing hirsutism, virilization in females.

 

DHEA Sulfate, Immunoassay:  DHEA-S is the sulfated form of DHEA and is the major androgen produced by the adrenal glands. This test is used in the differential diagnosis of hirsute or virialized female patients and for the diagnosis of isolated premature adrenarche and adrenal tumors. About 10% of hirsute women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) have elevated DHEA-S but normal levels of other androgens.

 

T3, Total:  Total T3 measurements are used to diagnose and monitor treatment of hyperthyroidism and are essential for recognizing T3 toxicosis.

 

Insulin:  For diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes and insulin-secreting tumors.

 

Vitamin D, 1, 25 Dihydroxy LC/MS/MS:  This test measures the bioactive form of vitamin D. It is used in the differential diagnosis of hypocalcemia and to monitor patients with renal osteodystrophy or chronic renal failure. This test is not suitable for diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency and monitoring supplementation in most patients.

 

Fibrinogen Activity:  Fibrinogen is essential for the formation of a blood clot. Deficiency can produce mild to severe bleeding disorders.

 

FSH and LH: FSH is  Fibrinogen is essential for the formation of a blood clot. Deficiency can produce mild to severe bleeding disorders. LH is  measures the amount of luteinizing hormone, which is also secreted by the pituitary gland. In women, LH levels rise at mid-cycle; within 24 to 36 hours, ovulation occurs. Higher-than-normal levels of LH indicate several disorders, including ovarian failure and polycystic ovary disease.

 

Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG):  Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estrogens circulate in serum bound to Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG). SHBG concentrations are increased in pregnancy, hyperthyroidism, cirrhosis, oral estrogen administration and by certain drugs. Concentrations are decreased by testosterone, hypothyroidism, Cushings syndrome, acromegaly and obesity.

 

Lp-PLA2: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), also known as platelet activating factor Acetylhydrolase, is an inflammatory enzyme that circulates bound mainly to low density lipoproteins and has been found to be localized and enriched in atherosclerotic plaques. In multiple clinical trials, Lp-PLA2 activity has been shown to be an independent predictor of coronary heart disease and stroke in the general population.

 

Omega-3 and 6 fatty acids, plasma: Baseline and monitoring of individuals with known CVD (acute and chronic) to determine Rx and compliance.

 

 Estradiol, Rapid:  Measuring the circulating levels of estradiol is important for assessing the ovarian function and monitoring follicular development for assisted reproduction protocols.

 

Cardio IQ:  Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and evaluation of carbohydrate metabolism.

 

Folate:  Folate levels have diagnostic significance in nutritional deficiencies, especially in cases of severe alcoholism, function damage to the upper third of small bowel, pregnancy and various forms of megoblastic anemia. Since serum folate levels are subject to rapid changes reflecting diet and absorption, RBC folate may be a better diagnostic tool since the levels remain fairly constant.   

  

Cholesterol: a compound of the sterol type found in most body tissues. Cholesterol and its derivatives are important constituents of cell membranes and precursors of other steroid compounds, but a high proportion in the blood of low-density lipoprotein is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease

 

Albumin: a simple form of protein that is soluble in water and coagulable by heat, such as that found in egg white, milk, and (in particular) blood serum.

 

Total Cholesterol: This Test Guide is designed to assist with test selection and interpretation of common chemistry analytes. The Guide lists the analytes and the conditions with which they are primarily associated as well as interpretive information for abnormal test results.

 

Cortisol: a steroid hormone, one of the glucocorticoids, made in the cortex of the adrenal glands and then released into the blood, which transports it all round the body.

 

IGF-1: Measuring this is useful in several growth-related disorders. Dwarfism caused by deficiency of growth hormone (Hypopituitarism) results in decreased serum levels of IGF-1, while acromegaly (growth hormone excess) results in elevated levels of IGF-1. IGF-1 measurements are also helpful in assessing nutritional status; levels are reduced in undernutrition and restored with a proper diet